Sedative-, Hypnotic-, and Anxiolytic-Related Disorders

Abuse and Dependence Sedative-hypnotic and alcohol intoxications are similar in symptoms and complications. Because sedative-hypnotic use is so frequent in hospitalized patients, the detection of sedative abuse can be difficult. Abuse rarely starts as a result of treatment of acute anxiety or insomnia in a hospitalized patient. The risk of sedative abuse in chronically medically ill outpatients is far greater. There are three major classes of benzodiazepine abusers: polysubstance abusers, pure sedative abusers, and therapeutic users who have lost control. Individuals prone to polysubstance abuse tend to use sedatives for their calming effects (i.e., to come down after use of a stimulant such as cocaine) and for their ability to decrease dysphoric affects, including anxiety, or to potentiate euphoric effects of other drug classes (e.g., benzodiazepines in combination with methadone to boost euphoria). Pure sedative abusers usually have significant underlying psychopathological conditions, and relapse is common. In a long-term follow-up study involving subjects with primary sedative-hypnotic dependence, 46% of the subjects continued to abuse drugs after in-hospital rehabilitation treatment. Anyone can develop physiological Read more […]

Club Drugs and Hallucinogens

The term club drugs comes from the association of several drugs with use in dance clubs or all night dance parties (“raves”). Popular club drugs are methamphetamine (see earlier section, “Amphetamine-Related Disorders”), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD; “acid”), 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; “Ecstasy” or “X”), gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB; “liquid X”), ketamine (“special K”), Rohypnol (“roofies”), and dextromethorphan (“DMX”) (). Emergency department visits due to MDMA and GHB use increased dramatically starting in the late 1990s. In the United States in 2002, emergency department visits for MDMA-related disorders numbered 4,026 and for GHB-related disorders numbered 3,330. Hallucinogenic drugs include LSD, mescaline, psilocybin, and synthetic derivatives such as 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA). The popularity of hallucinogens began to wane in the mid-1970s, but a modest resurgence in use occurred in the early 1990s, particularly among youth. MDMA (“Ecstasy”) MDMA, called “Ecstasy,” was promoted in the 1960s and 1970s as a “mood drug” without the distracting perceptual changes of other hallucinogens. MDMA is usually taken orally but can be taken in-tranasally (snorted). The purity of the drug in tablets Read more […]

Flunitrazepam: Generic and Trade Names

Synthetic substance Common generic and trade names Absint Flunitrazepam Neuraxpharm Pre-Sonil Benzosan Flunitrazepam Ratiopharm Primun B Dual N Flunizep von ct Psiconeurin Bibittoace Flupam Razepam Conexine Fluscand Rohipnol Darkene Fluserin Rohpinol Flubioquim Flutraz Rohypnol Fluminoc Hipnosedon Rohyprol Flumipam Hipnox Roipnal Fluni A1 Pharma Hypnocalm Roipnol Fluni OPT Hypnodorm Ronal Flunimerck Hypnor Rophynal Fluninoc Ipnopen Sedex Flunipam Libelius Serenil Raurich Flunita Metopram N Silece Flunitrax Narcozed Somnium Flunitrazepam Narcozep Somnubene Flunitrazepam Duncan Nitam Sylase Flunitrazepam Lando Noriel Valsera Flunitrazepam NM Pharma Parnox Vulbegal   Read more […]

Flunitrazepam: Pharmacodynamics

Sites of Action γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most widely distributed inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human brain. GABA owes its pharmacology to at least three receptor subtypes: GABA A-C. Whereas GABA A is coupled to a chloride channel, GABA B is coupled to cationic channels (K+, Ca2+) via G-proteins and second-messenger systems, and GABA C are chloride channels with totally different pharmacology than GABA A. A chloride channel allows negatively charged Cl- ions to enter the neurons and lower the resting membrane potential (hyperpolarization), resulting in a less excitable tissue and decreased neuronal function. The three GABA receptors have distinct structures, distinct functions, and different cellular localization and pharmacology. GABA A receptors are made of five subunits, and each subunit spans the neuronal membranes four times. This complex stoichiometry can clearly give rise to several subtypes of GABA A receptors: the most abundant human CNS receptor type is the α1β2γ2 isoform. Classically, GABA A receptors have modulatory (allosteric) sites for the binding of benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and neurosteroids. The functional response of the channel to both GABA and to its modulators is dependent Read more […]

Pharmacology of Flunitrazepam and Other Benzodiazepines

Benzodiazepines, therapeutically used as tranquilizers, hypnotics, anticonvulsants, and centrally acting muscle relaxants, rank among the most frequently prescribed drugs. Since Sternbach’s synthesis in 1955 of the first benzodiazepine by unexpected ring extension of a quinazoline-S-N-oxide derivative, a number of structurally similar compounds have been marketed by drug companies. Chlordiazepoxide (Librium®) was the first medical benzodiazepine, introduced in 1960, followed in 1963 by diazepam(Valium®) and in 1965 by oxazepam (Serax®). More than 50 of these drugs are presently marketed for clinical use throughout the world; 35 are subject to international control under the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. From International Narcotic Control Board (INCB) statistics, the most significant benzodiazepines in the last decade have been diazepam, lorazepam, alprazolam, temazepam, chlordiazepoxide, nitrazepam, triazolam, flunitrazepam, and lormetazepam. In this post dealing with the chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of benzodiazepines, we focus mainly on flunitrazepam (). Flunitrazepam was first introduced on the market in 1975, in Switzerland, under the trade name of Rohypnol®. It is indicated Read more […]

Drug Info: Therapeutic use. Treatment. Mental and Physiological Effects. Rehab.

Entries are arranged alphabetically and follow a standardized format that allows to easily find information, and also facilitates comparisons of different drugs. Rubrics include: • Official names, Street names: This section lists the alternate names for a substance, including brand names, generic names, and chemical names for drugs, as well as common “street” names for drugs and other substances. • Drug classification: This section lists the type of drug and its classification and schedule by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, if applicable. • Key terms: This is a mini-glossary of terms in the entry that may be unfamiliar to students. • Overview: Historical background is included here, including the drug’s origin, development, and introduction to society. The current impact of the drug is discussed. • Chemical/organic composition: This section includes discussion on the various compositions of the drug, if it is found in pure or altered forms, and whether or not it is often mixed with other substances or drugs. • Ingestion methods: Availability of the drug or substance in different forms, for example, pill or powder, is discussed. • Therapeutic use: This section describes Read more […]

Tranquilizers: Legal consequences

Tranquilizers: Composition, Therapeutic use, Usage trends. Treatment and rehabilitation. Tranquilizers effects. Reactions with other drugs.

Tranquilizers: Therapeutic use, Treatment. Tranquilizers rehab.

Tranquilizers: Composition, Therapeutic use, Usage trends. Treatment and rehabilitation. Tranquilizers effects. Reactions with other drugs.

Rohypnol: In the news

Rohypnol: Composition, Therapeutic use, Usage trends. Treatment and rehabilitation. Rohypnol effects. Reactions with other drugs.

Rohypnol: Fact or fiction

Rohypnol: Composition, Therapeutic use, Usage trends. Treatment and rehabilitation. Rohypnol effects. Reactions with other drugs.