Alcohol Additive psychoactive effects sought by users may be achieved by combinations of cannabis and alcohol, but at the same time the ability of THC to induce microsomal enzymes will increase the rate of metabolism of alcohol and so reduce the additive effects. Anticholinergic drugs The anticholinergic effects of cannabis may result in interactions with other drugs with anticholinergic effects, such as some antidysrhythmic drugs. Barbiturates, short-acting Additive psychoactive effects sought by users may be achieved by combinations of cannabis and short-acting barbiturates, but at the same time the ability of THC to induce microsomal enzymes will increase the rate of metabolism of barbiturates and so reduce the additive effects. Disulfiram Concurrent administration with disulfiram is associated with hypomania. Indinavir The effects of smoked marijuana (3.95% tetrahydrocan-nabinol; up to three cigarettes per day) and oral dronabi-nol (2.5 mg tds) on the pharmacokinetics of indinavir 800 mg 8-hourly (n =28) have been evaluated in a randomized, placebo-controlled study in HIV-infected patients. On day 14, marijuana reduced the 8-hour AUC of indinavir by 15%, the Cmax by 14%, and the Cmin by 34%. However, only Read more […]
The term club drugs comes from the association of several drugs with use in dance clubs or all night dance parties (“raves”). Popular club drugs are methamphetamine (see earlier section, “Amphetamine-Related Disorders”), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD; “acid”), 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; “Ecstasy” or “X”), gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB; “liquid X”), ketamine (“special K”), Rohypnol (“roofies”), and dextromethorphan (“DMX”) (). Emergency department visits due to MDMA and GHB use increased dramatically starting in the late 1990s. In the United States in 2002, emergency department visits for MDMA-related disorders numbered 4,026 and for GHB-related disorders numbered 3,330. Hallucinogenic drugs include LSD, mescaline, psilocybin, and synthetic derivatives such as 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA). The popularity of hallucinogens began to wane in the mid-1970s, but a modest resurgence in use occurred in the early 1990s, particularly among youth. MDMA (“Ecstasy”) MDMA, called “Ecstasy,” was promoted in the 1960s and 1970s as a “mood drug” without the distracting perceptual changes of other hallucinogens. MDMA is usually taken orally but can be taken in-tranasally (snorted). The purity of the drug in tablets Read more […]
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) is a natural substance and hallucinogen that made its appearance in modern times during the mid-1900s. Its use peaked in the American culture in the 1950s and 1960s. LSD became most popular for its mind altering effects, which include visual distortion and hallucinations, a distorted sense of time, feelings of detachment, alterations in sensory perception, emotional lability, and mystical experiences. There has been a question as to whether LSD use results in organic brain damage. An early study by McGlothlin et al. examined sixteen subjects who had received LSD in either an experimental or psychotherapeutic setting. These subjects and controls, who were matched for sex, age, and education, were administered a number of spatial and visual tests including the Trail Making Test, which assesses the speed and accuracy of visual scanning and cognitive flexibility. Also, a measure of general intelligence, a verbal fluency test, and tests from the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery were administered. Results revealed that only the category test, which assesses nonverbal reasoning and abstract problem solving, demonstrated a significant difference in performance between the two Read more […]
Benzodiazepines, therapeutically used as tranquilizers, hypnotics, anticonvulsants, and centrally acting muscle relaxants, rank among the most frequently prescribed drugs. Since Sternbach’s synthesis in 1955 of the first benzodiazepine by unexpected ring extension of a quinazoline-S-N-oxide derivative, a number of structurally similar compounds have been marketed by drug companies. Chlordiazepoxide (Librium®) was the first medical benzodiazepine, introduced in 1960, followed in 1963 by diazepam(Valium®) and in 1965 by oxazepam (Serax®). More than 50 of these drugs are presently marketed for clinical use throughout the world; 35 are subject to international control under the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. From International Narcotic Control Board (INCB) statistics, the most significant benzodiazepines in the last decade have been diazepam, lorazepam, alprazolam, temazepam, chlordiazepoxide, nitrazepam, triazolam, flunitrazepam, and lormetazepam. In this post dealing with the chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of benzodiazepines, we focus mainly on flunitrazepam (). Flunitrazepam was first introduced on the market in 1975, in Switzerland, under the trade name of Rohypnol®. It is indicated Read more […]
During the first half of the twentieth century, doctors began to recognize the enormous potential for creating drugs that could cure many common ailments. Pharmaceutical companies expanded their facilities and hired scientists to join in the search for new medicines. One such company was Sandoz, headquartered in Basil, Switzerland, which saw promise in chemicals that are produced by molds called ergot, which are commonly found on grains such as wheat and rye. These compounds, known as ergot alkaloids, were already known for a number of effects, including inducing uterine contractions, stopping bleeding, and relieving migraine headaches. In 1938, a Sandoz research chemist, Dr. Albert Hofmann, was experimenting with ergot because he believed that the alkaloids it produced might also be an effective medicine for people with breathing and circulation problems. Hofmann knew that the naturally occurring active component of the ergot alkaloid was lysergic acid, and he believed that he might be able to combine it with diethylamide, a synthetic compound, to develop a medicine that would stimulate breathing for asthma sufferers. The combination of these two compounds created lysergic acid diethylamide, which Hofmann named Read more […]
Entries are arranged alphabetically and follow a standardized format that allows to easily find information, and also facilitates comparisons of different drugs. Rubrics include: • Official names, Street names: This section lists the alternate names for a substance, including brand names, generic names, and chemical names for drugs, as well as common “street” names for drugs and other substances. • Drug classification: This section lists the type of drug and its classification and schedule by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, if applicable. • Key terms: This is a mini-glossary of terms in the entry that may be unfamiliar to students. • Overview: Historical background is included here, including the drug’s origin, development, and introduction to society. The current impact of the drug is discussed. • Chemical/organic composition: This section includes discussion on the various compositions of the drug, if it is found in pure or altered forms, and whether or not it is often mixed with other substances or drugs. • Ingestion methods: Availability of the drug or substance in different forms, for example, pill or powder, is discussed. • Therapeutic use: This section describes Read more […]
2C-B (Nexus): Composition, Therapeutic use, Usage trends. Treatment and rehabilitation. 2C-B (Nexus) effects. Reactions with other drugs.
Salvia Divinorum: Composition, Therapeutic use, Usage trends. Treatment and rehabilitation. Salvia Divinorum effects. Reactions with other drugs.
Psilocybin: Composition, Therapeutic use, Usage trends. Treatment and rehabilitation. Psilocybin effects. Reactions with other drugs.
PMA and PMMA: Composition, Therapeutic use, Usage trends. Treatment and rehabilitation. PMA and PMMA effects. Reactions with other drugs.