Treatment of Methamphetamine Abuse

Treatment of Methamphetamine Abuse — Lack of Evidence for the Efficacy of Any of the Models Currently in Use Traditional treatment programs based on the Minnesota Model (28-day in-patient treatment) have been shown to be ineffective for the treatment of stimulant addiction. Both the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) have sponsored research into the efficacy of treatments for methamphetamine (methamphetamine) abuse. A third program that has been put forward as a potentially useful model for the treatment of methamphetamine abuse is the Haight Ashbury Outpatient Model. Although the program that is currently receiving the greatest national attention, the Matrix Model, has been shown to be promising, none of these models has been effectively evaluated for its efficacy for the treatment of methamphetamine abuse. Treatment of Methamphetamine: Matrix Model of Outpatient Treatment NIDA Treatment Guidelines NIDA has published treatment guidelines for stimulant abusers that have been empirically tested and their efficacy validated. However, these manuals were developed and tested on a population of cocaine users. A recent report () identified a variety of differences Read more […]

Nicotine-Related Disorders

Nicotine-Related Disorders Tobacco addiction is the most preventable health problem in the United States. In 1993, approximately 60 million Americans smoked tobacco, and 400,000 deaths and $50 billion in direct medical-care expenditures were attributable to tobacco (Medical-Care Expenditures Attributable to Cigarette Smoking 1994). In the United States, approximately 30% of men and 26% of women smoke cigarettes. The percentage of young adults smoking cigarettes significantly increased between 1994 (35%) and 1998 (42%) (Office of Applied Studies 1999). Since 1965, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults in the United States has declined almost half. Cigarette smoking prevalence declined in the late 1970s, leveled off in the 1980s, and increased in the 1990s. Similar trends have occurred in other Western countries, but the prevalence of smoking has been increasing in Asia. Nicotine is a psychoactive substance with euphoric and positive reinforcement properties, similar to those of cocaine and opiates. The individual develops tolerance to nicotine and experiences significant withdrawal symptoms, including craving for tobacco, irritability, anxiety, difficulty concentrating, restlessness, decreased heart rate, Read more […]

Drug Testing

Many organizations require individuals to undergo drug testing if they wish to be considered for a job and sometimes if they wish to stay on the job. In addition, individuals on probation for crimes often must undergo random drug tests and a failure — a positive drug test — is a violation of their probation and must be adjudicated in a court to determine if the individual should be given more probation or serve the jail or prison sentence that was foregone in lieu of probation. Parolees — individuals newly released from prison — often must also undergo random drug tests and a failure is grounds for return to prison. The Department of Health and Human Services recommends testing for five substances, including amphetamine, marijuana, cocaine, opiates, and phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust). Amphetamines can be tested for up to 48 hours after the drug was ingested. According to pharmacologist Karen E. Moeller and colleagues, many drugs can give a false reading for amphetamines, such as the antidepressants bupropion (Wellbutrin), desipramine (Norpramin), or fluoxetine (Prozac), as well as pseudoephedrine (an ingredient in many cough and cold remedies), the blood pressure medication labetalol (Normodyne), the Parkinsons Read more […]