2C-B (Nexus): Therapeutic use, Treatment. 2C-B (Nexus) rehab.
Last modified: Saturday, 20. June 2009 - 3:53 pm
Official names: 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B)
Street names: Nexus, bromo, afterburner bromo, Utopia, Venus, spectrum, BDMPEA, toonies, MFT, erox, cloud nine zenith
Drug classifications: Schedule I, hallucinogen
AMPHETAMINES: A class of drugs frequently abused as a stimulant. Used medically to treat narcolepsy (a condition characterized by brief attacks of deep sleep) and as an appetite suppressant.
GHB (GAMMA HYDROXYBUTYRATE): Originally sold in health food stores as a growth hormone, a liquid nervous depressant touted for its ecstasy-like qualities. Banned by the FDA in 1990, the respiratory depression it can cause makes it among the most dangerous club drugs in circulation.
HALLUCINOGENS: Agroup of drugs that induces sensory distortions and hallucinations.
KETAMINE: An anesthetic abused for its mind-altering effects that is popular as an illicit club drug. It is sometimes used to facilitate sexual assault, or date rape.
LSD (D-LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE): A powerful chemical compound renowned for its hallucinogenic properties.
Known as ecstasy, E and X, MDMA is the most popular of the “club drugs,” a synthetic stimulant with mild hallucinogenic properties.
MESCALINE: A hallucinatory drug that is the chief acting agent found in mescal buttons of the peyote plant.
NEUROTRANSMITTER: Chemical in the brain that transmits messages between neurons, or nerve cells.
S E ROTO NIN: An important neurotransmitter in the brain that regulates mood, appetite, sensory perception, and other central nervous system functions.
TRYPTOPHAN: An amino acid that is widely distributed in proteins.
2C-B is a relatively new drug to emerge on the club or rave scene. According to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), there is a significant rise in usage in the United States over the past several years. The drug is already popular in the Netherlands, where much of the supply comes from, as well as Germany, Switzerland, and South Africa.
Known popularly as Nexus, 2C-B is a hallucinogen that was legal in the United States until 1995, when it was classified as a Schedule I drug under the U.S. Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Other Schedule I drugs include opium, heroin, and cocaine. It is a synthetic substance, meaning it is manufactured from chemicals and does not occur naturally. Since 2000, large quantities of the drug have been seized by local police and federal agents in Las Vegas, Chicago, Kansas City, South Dakota, Virginia, and Maine, indicating a nationwide distribution network.
The effects of 2C-B are unpredictable and can be radically violent. It is a hallucinogen that produces euphoria and heightened sensual awareness, including vision, hearing, smell, and touch. Low doses of 4-6 mg make the user become passive and relaxed. High doses of 20-30 mg can cause extreme hallucinations and morbid delusions. The effects usually last from four to eight hours, although they can last for up to 12 hours.
The drug can produce profound distortions in the way a person perceives reality. People under the influence of 2C-B see images, hear sounds, and feel sensations that are not real. It can also produce sudden and intense emotional swings. The drug works by disrupting the normal functions of the serotonin system. Serotonin is a substance widely distributed in nerve cells and acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain.
The chemical properties of 2C-B most closely resemble those of mescaline, and 2C-B is 10 times more powerful than another popular club drug, MDMA (ecstasy). It is considered both a hallucinogen and an entactogen, a term that means “touching within.” The visual effects, including hallucinations, can be more intense than those produced by LSD or “magic mushrooms” (psilocybin), both powerful and potentially deadly drugs in their own right.
Dr. Alexander Shulgin, an American chemist and pharmacologist, first produced 2C-B in 1974. Shulgin has discovered or synthesized more than 150 drugs, most of them hallucinogens. Shulgin has drawn the displeasure of U.S. law enforcement agencies for publishing the chemical formulas for all of his drug discoveries. He has also written of his personal experiences while using the drugs.
2C-B was introduced to psychotherapists in the United States in the late 1970s. A German pharmaceutical company became the first to manufacture and sell the drug worldwide under the trade name Nexus, and was marketed as a treatment for impotency and frigidity. Several other foreign pharmaceutical companies followed suit, marketing the drug under the brand names of Eros and Performax. By 1993, the United States had become the largest market for 2C-B, which was sold without the need for a prescription.
The drug caught the attention of U.S. drug authorities and the American public in December 1993 when Newsweek reported it had become one of the most popular drugs at all-night raves and dance clubs frequented by teenagers and young adults. Since it did not require a prescription, the drug was sold in adult book and video stores, drug paraphernalia stores called “head” shops, bars, and nightclubs. It was sold in yellow, unmarked capsules for $17 — $25 each. Users could also buy 10 capsules in matchbox-like packages that included instructions for use.
Although it was not yet a controlled substance, DEA agents closed 2C-B manufacturing laboratories in California in 1986 and 1994 and in Arizona in 1992. On June 5, 1995, the drug was placed on Schedule I of the CSA. The drug’s effects are similar to other Schedule I hallucinogens; it has a high potential for abuse, and has no accepted medical uses. 2C-B is banned or controlled in Great Britain, Canada, France, Japan, the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, and South Africa.
2C-B hit the Netherlands at about the same time it found its way into the U.S. drug scene. It was not covered under the Dutch Opium Act, under which drugs are deemed illegal. Tablets of the drug were manufactured by a Dutch firm and were available without a prescription at so-called “smart-drug” shops. The abuse of 2C-B skyrocketed in a short time. The drug was finally scheduled on the list of illegal drugs in mid-1997, and production in the Netherlands all but ceased. Since then, use has dropped substantially and the tablets are difficult to find, according to a 1999 article in the Journal of Analytical Toxicology.
When the Netherlands banned 2C-B, two offshoots of the drug, para-methylthioamphetamine and 4-ethyl-thio-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-T), were introduced. Since they are not specifically named in the Dutch Opium Act, they are not banned. These offshoots have not been reported to be used in the United States.