Multiple Drug Use Epidemiology, Correlates, and Consequences

The initial focus is on the conceptual issues essential to the understanding of multiple drug use. This is followed by a discussion of the developmental nature of multiple drug use and the various strategies that have been designed to measure multiple use. The third section of the paper contains a review of the extent of multiple drug use in various segments of society with data from the Monitoring-the-Future surveys of high school seniors, the National Survey on Drug Abuse, and the Treatment Outcome Prospective Study of drug abuse treatment clients. The conclusion is that multiple drug use is pervasive. The next section deals with several consequences associated with multiple drug use: automobile accidents, delinquency, and emergency room visits. The final section outlines some of the prevention and treatment implications of multiple drug use from a public policy perspective. In a study of the effects of a single drug upon behavior, the implications are manifold. Dosage levels, modes of administration, baseline states, the expectations of the subjects and of the investigators, the environment in which the drug is taken — all these variables, and others as well, make human psychochemical studies difficult and complex. Read more […]

Adolescence and Drug Abuse: Biomedical Consequences

Many facets of the biomedical aspects of substance abuse in adolescents have not yet been adequately researched. Little is known about the biological elements, if any, that contribute to the genesis of substance abuse. In the instance of alcoholism a genetic vulnerability appears to be established from the studies of identical twins, one raised by the natural parent and the other placed at an early age in the home of nonalcoholic foster parents. In the studies conducted both in this country () and in Denmark () the incidence of problem drinking of both groups of twins was similar. It is well established that among people of Mongolian descent, a widespread sensitivity to alcohol, based upon the rapid accumulation of acetaldehyde, is observed (). Facial flushing and more upsetting symptoms, including asthma and hypotension, can be present. In those with marked discomfort after drinking small amounts of ethanol, a certain preventive role is probably played by this inborn racial change in the ability to metabolize alcohol. Such genetic factors have not yet been uncovered for other psychoactive drugs. With the recent identification of opiate () and benzodiazepine () receptor sites, and the hint that other drug-specific Read more […]