Multiple Drug Use Epidemiology, Correlates, and Consequences

The initial focus is on the conceptual issues essential to the understanding of multiple drug use. This is followed by a discussion of the developmental nature of multiple drug use and the various strategies that have been designed to measure multiple use. The third section of the paper contains a review of the extent of multiple drug use in various segments of society with data from the Monitoring-the-Future surveys of high school seniors, the National Survey on Drug Abuse, and the Treatment Outcome Prospective Study of drug abuse treatment clients. The conclusion is that multiple drug use is pervasive. The next section deals with several consequences associated with multiple drug use: automobile accidents, delinquency, and emergency room visits. The final section outlines some of the prevention and treatment implications of multiple drug use from a public policy perspective. In a study of the effects of a single drug upon behavior, the implications are manifold. Dosage levels, modes of administration, baseline states, the expectations of the subjects and of the investigators, the environment in which the drug is taken — all these variables, and others as well, make human psychochemical studies difficult and complex. Read more […]

Cancers

Gastrointestinal Diseases Not all of the effects of alcohol occur rapidly, as in the cases of motor vehicle crashes, pedestrian falls, and subsequent skeletal injuries. Some medical consequences of alcohol are more insidious, taking years to unfold before any significant medical consequence is detected. Among these are cell damage caused by the direct or indirect toxic effects of alcohol. The first tissue that alcohol comes into contact with is, in most instances, the upper gastrointestinal system. [The author has received anecdotal reports from clinicians and recovering alcoholics about intravenous and rectal administration of alcohol, but it is believed that such experimental drug use is rare] With the exception of minute quantities of alcohol that are directly absorbed through membranes in the buccal cavity and esophagus, when swallowed, alcohol goes directly to the stomach in high concentrations. Since the toxic effects of alcohol are directly related to dose and concentrations, one might reasonably predict that high concentrations of alcohol have potentially deleterious effects throughout the cells of the gastrointestinal system. Alcohol inhibits smooth muscle contractions in the lower esophagus, which may Read more […]

Drug Info: Therapeutic use. Treatment. Mental and Physiological Effects. Rehab.

Entries are arranged alphabetically and follow a standardized format that allows to easily find information, and also facilitates comparisons of different drugs. Rubrics include: • Official names, Street names: This section lists the alternate names for a substance, including brand names, generic names, and chemical names for drugs, as well as common “street” names for drugs and other substances. • Drug classification: This section lists the type of drug and its classification and schedule by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, if applicable. • Key terms: This is a mini-glossary of terms in the entry that may be unfamiliar to students. • Overview: Historical background is included here, including the drug’s origin, development, and introduction to society. The current impact of the drug is discussed. • Chemical/organic composition: This section includes discussion on the various compositions of the drug, if it is found in pure or altered forms, and whether or not it is often mixed with other substances or drugs. • Ingestion methods: Availability of the drug or substance in different forms, for example, pill or powder, is discussed. • Therapeutic use: This section describes Read more […]

2C-B (Nexus): History notes

2C-B (Nexus): Composition, Therapeutic use, Usage trends. Treatment and rehabilitation. 2C-B (Nexus) effects. Reactions with other drugs.

2C-B (Nexus): Law and order

2C-B (Nexus): Composition, Therapeutic use, Usage trends. Treatment and rehabilitation. 2C-B (Nexus) effects. Reactions with other drugs.

2C-B (Nexus): Legal consequences

2C-B (Nexus): Composition, Therapeutic use, Usage trends. Treatment and rehabilitation. 2C-B (Nexus) effects. Reactions with other drugs.

2C-B (Nexus): Personal and social consequences

2C-B (Nexus): Composition, Therapeutic use, Usage trends. Treatment and rehabilitation. 2C-B (Nexus) effects. Reactions with other drugs.

2C-B (Nexus): Treatment and rehabilitation

2C-B (Nexus): Composition, Therapeutic use, Usage trends. Treatment and rehabilitation. 2C-B (Nexus) effects. Reactions with other drugs.

2C-B (Nexus): Reactions with other drugs or substances

2C-B (Nexus): Composition, Therapeutic use, Usage trends. Treatment and rehabilitation. 2C-B (Nexus) effects. Reactions with other drugs.

2C-B (Nexus): Physiological effects

2C-B (Nexus): Composition, Therapeutic use, Usage trends. Treatment and rehabilitation. 2C-B (Nexus) effects. Reactions with other drugs.