Administration of Amphetamines to Rodent Subjects

As mentioned above, ethical concerns preclude the use of humans in many experimental situations; however, we can understand many features of the human central nervous system by understanding the brains of other animals. The animal most widely used in the area of amphetamine experimentation is the rodent, which has an analogous, rather than homologous, brain structure to humans. In the following sections, we examine the modification of aggressive behavior in rodents by amphetamines. The various aspects of aggressive behavior include the tendency for provoked attack, the influence of environment on behavior, social factors, and the neurological basis of aggression. Behavioral Observations When using nonhuman subjects to study aggressive behavior, the typical research methodologies most usually employed by experimenters include pain-, isolation-, and brain stimulation-induced aggression. However, when making a comparison between animals of different species the outcomes of these tests yield varying and somewhat contradictory results, which in turn hampers one’s ability to generalize to the human population. Additionally, it has been found that the most important aspects of amphetamine-stimulated aggressive and defensive Read more […]

Amphetamine-Related Disorders

Amphetamines (speed) have stimulant and reinforcing properties similar to those of cocaine. Amphetamines cause catecholamine release, especially of dopamine. The signs and symptoms of amphetamine intoxication include tachycardia, increased blood pressure, pupillary dilatation, agitation, elation, loquacity, and hypervigilance. In contrast to cocaine, amphetamines rarely cause myocardial infarction. Amphetamine psychosis can resemble acute paranoid schizophrenia. Visual hallucinations are common. Binge episodes (“runs”), which are similar to those experienced with cocaine use, often alternate with symptoms of a severe crash. Polysubstance use is common. CNS stimulants, such as dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate, are prescribed for the treatment of narcolepsy, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and fatigue in multiple sclerosis, but the doses used infrequently cause adverse effects such as insomnia, irritability, confusion, and hostility. Amphetamine abuse can start in an attempt to lose weight or to enhance energy. Epidemiological Characteristics and Complications Abuse of methamphetamine (“ice”) is a particular problem in the midwestern, western, and southwestern United States but has been spreading into Read more […]

Internet Sales Of Scheduled Drugs

Some online Web sites offer scheduled drugs for sale, such as methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), dextroamphetamine (Adderall, Dexedrine), and dexmethylphenidate HCl (Focalin). In a comprehensive report by the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, in New York, the researchers noted that Internet users are largely young individuals, such as college students, teens, and even children. Illicit Web sites have few or no protections for children and in fact the researchers reported that a 13-year-old child, under the supervision of adults, ordered Ritalin online when giving her correct age, height, and weight. Of course, some online pharmacies are legitimate and most are certified by the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy under the Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS) program. In 2008, the researchers found 365 sites offering scheduled drugs for sale, a decrease from the 581 sites found in 2007. However, 27% of the sites sold stimulants, more than double the rate of 11% found in 2007. Many of these sites stay in business for a year and then close. The researchers also noted that legitimate payers are opposed to illegal drug sales; for example, PayPal does not Read more […]

Meth And Other Stimulants

Methamphetamine is a synthetic psychostimulant that physicians have legally prescribed as a treatment for attention deficit disorder under the brand name Desoxyn. The drug can be made easily in clandestine labs with over-the-counter ingredients. For addicts, it is relatively inexpensive to purchase and has desired effects that last for hours. The desired effects of meth use can last from six to eight hours, followed by a coming-down period when the user becomes agitated and potentially violent. Drugs, such as meth, labeled as psychostimulants include a diverse range of CNS (central nervous system) stimulants such as amphetamine, cocaine, methylphenidate (Ritalin), methylene dioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA, or ecstasy), caffeine, and nicotine, to name a few. A number of prescription drugs, in addition to Ritalin, such as Dexedrine (dextroamphetamine), Cylert (pemoline), and Adderall (adderall) are psychostimulants as well. Psychoactive stimulants activate the CNS by increasing pulse rate, alertness, blood pressure, restlessness, euphoria, excitement, increased energy, talkativeness, and other changes. Users of psychostimulants experience euphoria, increased sense of well-being, more energy, more confidence or overconfidence, Read more […]

The History Of Methamphetamine

Although we are hearing more and more about it, meth is not a new drug and has been around for decades. Methamphetamine is closely related to the drug amphetamine. Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887 in Germany by a scientist named L. Edeleano, who named it phenylisopropylamine. During the 1920s, researchers investigated it as a decongestant and as a medical treatment for depression and other medical ailments. By the 1930s, retailers marketed amphetamine as Benzedrine, an over-the-counter decongestant. Later in the decade, physicians prescribed amphetamine for narcolepsy, ADHD, and depression. During World War II, the military used amphetamines to keep soldiers ready and available for duty. As medical use of amphetamines spread, so did abuse. In 1919, a Japanese chemist named A. Ogata produced the first methamphetamine. Meth is more powerful and easier to manufacture than amphetamine. During World War II, the Japanese military used meth to improve military performance. It was also sold over the counter in Japan to increase work performance and endurance during the war. Following the war, its use, including intravenously, became epidemic in Japan, as supplies were readily available. It has been suggested that Read more […]

Diet Pills: Composition, Therapeutic use, Treatment. Diet Pills effects. Reactions with other drugs.

Diet Pills: Composition, Therapeutic use, Usage trends. Diet Pills effects. Treatment and rehabilitation. Reactions with other drugs.

Dextroamphetamine: History notes

Dextroamphetamine: Composition, Therapeutic use, Usage trends. Dextroamphetamine effects. Treatment and rehabilitation. Reactions with other drugs.

Dextroamphetamine: History notes

Dextroamphetamine: Composition, Therapeutic use, Usage trends. Dextroamphetamine effects. Treatment and rehabilitation. Reactions with other drugs.

Dextroamphetamine: Legal consequences

Dextroamphetamine: Composition, Therapeutic use, Usage trends. Dextroamphetamine effects. Treatment and rehabilitation. Reactions with other drugs.

Dextroamphetamine: Personal and social consequences

Dextroamphetamine: Composition, Therapeutic use, Usage trends. Dextroamphetamine effects. Treatment and rehabilitation. Reactions with other drugs.