Drug Impairment Reviews: Anesthetics and Foreign Tranquilizers

STUDY: Doenicke, A., J. Kugler, M. Laub. Evaluation of Recovery “Street Fitness” by E.E.G. and Psychodiagnostic Tests After Anaesthesia. Can. Anaes. Soc. J., 14:567-583. 1967. (This study has been conducted in West Germany, but the address of the authors is not indicated in the reference.) Subjects: The total number of subjects is not evident but it must be above 200. Eighty-one subjects completed the psychomotor test battery. Demographic data on the subjects and descriptions of their health or drug use prior to the study are not given. They are, however, described as healthy volunteers. Method: This is an experimental study conducted in a clinical laboratory. The drugs administered as a single dose were thiobutabarbital (500 mg), methohexital (150 mg), and propanidid and C1-581 in doses which are not reported. Some subjects received repeated anesthesia but their number is not reported, nor is the order of or the interval between the anesthesias. Some subjects also received halothane, diethylether, or nitrous oxide after propanidid. Halothane was administered for 15 minutes. None of the concentrations of the inhalation anesthetics are reported in the text. EEG was continuously recorded for 12 or 24 hours Read more […]

Anesthetics and Foreign Tranquilizers: Anesthetics

The rapid increase of hospital expenses taking place in all western countries has forced the expansion of outpatient services. This trend has imposed new requirements on the methods used for anesthesia and sedation. Hospitals should use anesthetics which lack cardiovascular side effects and which allow for a rapid recovery after the medical procedure is over (). This is of particular importance in countries such as the United States, where personal cars provide the most convenient transportation for local travel. Cur knowledge concerning the recovery of psychomotor skills related to driving after anesthesia is increasing, but we are still far from the goal of being able to predict the duration of the aftereffects of an anesthetic on an individual patient. There are several methods to choose for outpatient anesthesia, depending on the type of operation or procedure and the habits and preferences of the anesthetist. Local anesthetics can be suggested for outpatient use whenever possible. Lidocaine in high doses does not impair psychomotor performance for more than 2 hours (), and combining the anesthetic with epinephrine can reduce the adverse psychomotor effects of the drug by slowing its absorption from the site Read more […]

Driving After IntraMuscular Lidocaine, Bupivacaine and Etidocaine

STUDIES: 1. Korttila, K. Psychomotor Skills Related to Driving After IntraMuscular Lidocaine. Acta Anaesth. Stand., 18:290-206. 1974. 2. Korttila, K., S. Hakkinen, M. Linnoila. Side Effects and Skills Related to Driving After Intramuscular Administration of Bupivacaine and Etidocaine. Acta Anaesth. Stand., 19:384-391. 1975. Site: Department of Anaesthesia and Pharmacology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, and Department of Industrial Psychology, Institute of Technology, Espoc, Finland. These two experimental, clinical studies are reviewed together because the methodology in them is essentially the same, and the main problem in both is the effect of intramuscularly administered local anaesthetics on psychomotor skills related to driving. Subjects: Thirty healthy student volunteers, 20 to 25 years of age, participated in study number 1. The subjects were of normal weight as to their height, ± 10 percent (according to Home Economics Research Report, No 10, ARS, USDA). The three experimental groups were controlled as to their sex distribution as well. None of the subjects had a history of mental illness. They had not been on drugs for at least a month prior to the study. There were 24 males and 6 Read more […]