Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorders

In general, treatment for substance dependence involves a combination of several psychosocial interventions, which can be combined with pharmacological interventions. Treatment of AUDs can be preceded by a detoxification, depending on severity of alcohol dependence. Personality and Substance Misuse and Pharmacotherapy of Addiction are discussed in depth in site. A short description and discussion of psychological and pharmacological interventions in AUDs are presented below. Detoxification: Symptoms, Medication The first stage of treatment for alcohol dependence often consists of alcohol detoxification, in order to prevent complications during detoxification, and to diminish symptoms and adverse effects associated with detoxification. Symptoms can develop within several hours after last alcohol use, and usually show a peak 24–36 h after abstinence. Symptoms that can be experienced during alcohol detoxification are anxiety, restlessness, sleeplessness, sweating, nausea, vomiting, tremors, heightened blood pressure, and an increased heart rate. Alcohol detoxification is estimated to take a week, although sleep disturbances and psychological withdrawal symptoms can persist much longer. Monitoring of alcohol-dependent Read more […]

Cocaine-Related Disorders

DSM-IV-TR describes both cocaine use disorders (cocaine dependence and cocaine abuse) and cocaine-induced disorders (cocaine intoxication, cocaine withdrawal, cocaine intoxication delirium, cocaine-induced sexual dysfunction, cocaine-induced psychotic, mood, anxiety, and sleep disorders). Epidemiological Characteristics An estimated 193,034 U.S. emergency department visits solely for cocaine use were documented in the 2001 Drug Abuse Warning Network (Office of Applied Studies 2003), and cocaine is the most frequently reported drug in emergency department visits. Frequent reasons for psychiatric consultation in the medical setting are cocaine overdose, positive results of a urine toxicological screen, cocaine-induced depression, cocaine-induced cardiac problems, and cocaine-induced psychosis. According to the 1998 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1.8 million individuals in the United States had used cocaine during a 1-month period. Use of crack cocaine is especially high in poor urban areas, but its use is widespread among other populations, such as rural migrant workers. Many cocaine users are polysubstance abusers. Pharmacological Characteristics Cocaine hydrochloride is a white crystalline powder derived Read more […]

Meth Treatment

Compared to other chronic illnesses, addictions are highly treatable. O’Brien and McLellan (1996) in a review of treatment research found that for alcoholism treatment success rates averaged about 50 percent (range 40-70 percent, opiate dependence 60 percent (range 50-80 percent), cocaine dependence 55 percent (range 50-60 percent), and nicotine dependence 30 percent (range 20-40 percent). One of the major myths is that treatment does not work when it comes to meth addiction. This myth has been fuelled partially by the media and the absence of systematic research on meth treatment modalities. Little systematic research has been conducted on the efficacy of treatment for or prevention of meth addiction, but this is beginning to change. The Matrix model for treating stimulant abuse is the most frequently cited systematic research. The literature has also supported cognitive-behavioral approaches in treating meth and other addictions. This is not to suggest that general data on meth treatment is not available. In congressional testimony, the Executive Director of NASADAD shared data from three states that supported services for meth addiction: • In Colorado, 80 percent of methamphetamine users were abstinent at Read more […]