The purpose of this paper is to explore changes in the narcotic addiction [Narcotic addicts are defined in this study as persons who have used opium, its derivatives, or synthetics for non-medical reasons four or more days a week for at least a month. Onset of addiction was defined in terms of the first occurrence of such a period] scene in an era of rapid social change. The quarter of a century covered by this study embraces an era in which major significant changes have occurred in this society. The Sample and Data A sample of 499 subjects was selected from a roster of male narcotic abusers first known to the Baltimore City Police Department Narcotic Squad between the years 1952-1976, inclusive. From each year’s contribution to the roster, ten whites [Only nine whites were available in 1956] and ten blacks were selected in a random, stratified manner, and 402 were interviewed. The data to be analyzed were drawn from a structured interview schedule devised by the project staff; each interview took approximately three hours and was administered by a staff member especially trained for this purpose. In this report, the data [All appropriate tables have been deleted from this abbreviated presentation and appear in Read more […]
Archive for category Drug Addiction'
Classical and operant conditioning factors are both potentially significant in the maintenance of opiate use. Analysis from the perspective of the operant conditioning paradigm emphasizes the importance of discriminative stimulus control and the efficacy of opiates as reinforcers (). In the context of the classical conditioning paradigm, emphasis is placed on environmental correlates of drug effects and withdrawal symptoms as elicitors of overt behavioral and physiological responses. Concurrently it must be recognized that a model based on integration of both paradigms probably reflects most accurately the reality of human opiate dependence (). In the context of either the operant or classical conditioning paradigms, seemingly contradictory and diverse effects of stimuli and events may be identified. However, careful analysis leads to the conclusion that systematic results prevail and that findings parallel those involving other behaviors and reinforcers. As has been discussed in a recent review (), the primary problems appear to arise in delineating the phase of opiate action (e.g., onset, termination, withdrawal) with which stimulus events are associated. A secondary problem arises in differentiating patterns of Read more […]
Recently several studies have examined the use of propoxyphene napsylate (Darvon-N) in the detoxification and maintenance of narcotic addicts. Tennant () reported that three programs in Los Angeles had succeeded in detoxifying 280 heroin addicts with propoxyphene napsylate, while maintaining 92 others on an outpatient basis for periods up to 240 days. In a doubleblind detoxification study comparing propoxyphene napsylate and methadone, he found that propoxyphene patients were more likely than methadone patients to be opiate abstinent at one month followup (). However, in this doubleblind study, Tennant found propoxyphene to be less effective than methadone in suppressing withdrawal complaints. He also noted side effects from propoxyphene, such as mild visual hallucinations, slurring of speech and seizurelike symptoms (). Jasinski () reported that propoxyphene napsylate used in maximum non toxic doses (about 1200 mg per day) produced narcotic-like activity equal to that of only 20 to 25 mg of subcutaneously administered morphine, or 10 mg of orally administered methadone. Again, he found that propoxyphene napsylate doses greater than 700 mg produced disturbing side effects in many subjects. This paper will report Read more […]